Unit 3

Contents

1. Exchange

1.1 Surface Area to Volume Ratio

1.2 Gas exchange surfaces

1.2.1 Gas Exchange in Fish

1.2.2 Gas Exchange in Plants

1.2.3 Gas Exchange in Insects

1.2.4 Mammalian Gas Exchange

2. Mammalian Gas Exchange

2.1 Structures of Mammalian Airway

2.1 Trachea

2.1.1 Bronchi

2.1.2 Bronchioles

2.1.3 Alveoli

2.1.4 Features of Mammalian Airway

2.2 Inspiration and Expiration

2.2.1 Mammalian Ventilation + Inspiration and Expiration 

2.2.1 Spirometry

 

3. Digestion and Absorption

3.1 Digestion

3.1.1 Enzymes for Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

3.2 Absorption

3.2.1 Absorption of Carbohydrates

3.2.2 Absorption of Amino Acids

3.2.3 Absorption of Lipids

3.2.4 Adaptations of the Gut to Absorption

4. Oxygen Transport

4.1 Haemoglobin

4.1.1 Haemoglobin and Oxygen

4.1.2 Oxygen Dissociation Curves

4.1.3 Foetal Haemoglobin

4.1.4 Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Oxygen Dissociation

5. Mammalian Circulatory System

5.1 The Human Heart

5.1.1 Structure of the Human Heart

5.1.2 Vessels of the Heart

5.1.3 Heart Valves

5.1.4 Pathway of Bloodflow

5.1.5 Cardiac Cycle

5.1.6 Cardiac Pressure Graph

5.2 Blood Vessels

5.2.1 Types of Blood Vessels

5.2.2 Formation of Tissue Fluid

6. Mass Transport in Plants

6.1 Vascular Bundle

6.1.1 Vascular Bundle in the Stem

6.1.2 Vascular Bundle in the Roots

6.1.3 Vascular Bundle in the Leaves

6.2 Transpiration

6.2.1 The Process of Transpiration 

6.2.2 Factors Affecting Transpiration

6.2.3 Xerophytes

6.2.4 Measuring Transpiration

6.3 Movement of Water

6.3.1 Movement of Water in the Roots

6.3.2 Movement of Water in the Xylem

6.3.3 Cohesion Tension Theory

6.3.4 Translocation

6.3.5 Evidence for Mass Transport in Plants