Unit 4

Contents

1. Genetics

1 DNA, genes and chromosomes

1.1.1 The Genetic Code

1.1.2 Genetic Information in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

1.2 DNA and Protein Synthesis

1.2.1 Structure of mRNA

1.2.2 Structure of tRNA

1.2.3 Transcription

1.2.4 Translation

1.3 Genetic Mutations

1.3.1 Types of Genetic Mutation

1.4 Meiosis and Genetic Variation

1.4.1 Meiosis

1.4.2 Crossing over and Independent Assortment of Chromosomes