Unit 2

Contents

1. Studying Cells

1.1 Microscopes

1.1.1 ​Scanning Electron Microscopes

1.1.2 Transmission Electron Microscopes

1.1.3 Magnification calculation

1.1.4 Cell Fractionation and Ultracentrifugation

2 Cell Structure

2.1 Structure 

2.1.4 Ultrastucture of eukaryotic cells

2.1.5 Ultrastructure of prokaryotic cells

3 The Cell Cycle

3.1 Mitosis

3.1.1 Binary Fission

4 Biological Membranes

4.1 Components of the membrane

4.2 Movement of Molecules

4.2.1 Diffusion

4.2.2 Facilitated Diffusion

4.2.3 Osmosis

4.2.4 Active Transport

4.2.5 Exocytosis and Endocytosis

4.2.6 Co-Transport

5 Bacteria and Viruses

5.1.1 Tuberculosis

5.1.2 HIV

5.1.3 

6 The Immune Response

6.1 Non-Specific Immune Response

6.1.1 Phagocytosis

6.2 Specific Immune Response 

6.2.1 Immune Cells

6.2.2 Cell Medicated Response

6.2.3 Humoral Response

6.2.4 Antibodies

6.3 Active and Passive Immunity

6.3.1 Vaccination

6.3.2 Herd Immunity

6.3.3 Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift

6.3.4 Ethics of Vaccinations

 

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